Monthly Archives: March 2017

Is Your Dog Eating Poop? – 9 Causes and How to Put Put a Stop to this Disgusting Behavior

Eating their own poop or that of another dog is not only a disgustingly bad habit that many dogs partake in but it can also be an indication of health problems.

Abnormal indigestive behavior such as eating poop, rocks, iron, glass, ice, screws, gravel, dirt, or just eating abnormal amounts of food can be related to PICA (Pie-Kuh)–consistent ingestion of nonfood material or Coprophagia (cop-ra-FAY-jee-a)–ingestion of feces.

According to The Merck Veterinary Manual, PICA and Coprophagia can be signs of behavioral problems such as obsessive compulsive disorders. However, some animal studies by holistic veterinarians suggest that a lack of nutrition may also be the culprit.

Although your dog may be eating a well-balanced diet of both wet and dry foods, the ability of your dog’s digestive system to properly absorb the nutrients in the fool may be less than adequate. Dogs are instinctively driven to scavenge or find foods to supplement their needs and will often turn to such things as feces, vomit, and decaying flesh to find these valuable nutrients.

Some foods that are difficult for a dog to completely digest, such as carrots and grain-based foods, can become a trigger for the dog to ingest feces. A diet low in carbohydrates and high in protein may help to improve your dog’s ability to digest food and to produce stools that are less appetizing.

Many holistic veterinarians suggest supplementing your dog’s diet with enzymes such as those found in Prozyme. Other suggest the use of herbs such as ginger or cinnamon in tiny amounts (1/8 to 1/4 tsp) sprinkled on their food to make the feces less appetizing. The addition of pineapple, spinach, garlic, and pumpkin, in small amounts, to your dog’s food can also help in making the feces less desirable to eat.

If you have a dog that is eating his or other animal feces, you should first have them examined by a qualified veterinarian. Coprophagia may simply be due to a lack of nutrients, however, there are many other possible causes including Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (the inability of the pancreas to produce a sufficient amount of digestive enzymes), Pancreatitis (an inflamed pancreas), and intestinal infections.

While the feces may provide the nutrients the dog is seeking, they may also contain parasites such as round worms or whipworms and can lead to other more serious medical disorders.

There are three types of Coprophagia:

Autocoprophagia–when a dog partakes in eating his or her own feces.

Intraspecific Coprophagia–when a dog partakes in eating the feces of another animal in his or her own species.

Interspecific Coprophagia–when a dog partakes in eating the feces of another species of animal such as cat feces or deer and rabbit droppings.

Other reasons for a dog eating feces include a need for attention, (even if it is from being disciplined by their owner), copying other animals who engage in eating feces, following the maternal instinct to clean up, or simply not being fed enough to satisfy their appetite.

Whatever the reason, it may be more than just a disgusting habit and should be investigated to ensure the health of your canine.

Cayenne Pepper and Heart Health – Is Cayenne a Cure For Heart Disease?

Cayenne pepper is one of the most powerful and beneficial herbs known to mankind, but unfortunately very few know of its efficacy. Cayenne pepper and heart health should be synonymous for anyone with heart disease or cardiovascular issues but it is not. Due to the power and might of Big Pharma and their unholy alliance with the United States government, many Americans are simply unaware of natural herbs that can dramatically improve their heart health.

“If this is true, then why haven’t the masses heard of it?” you may ask. A fair question. In a word, money. Literally billions of dollars have been spent on heart disease care and research, not to mention the billions on pharmaceutical drugs fighting cholesterol.

In fact, the number-one-selling drug in the US is Lipitor — ostensibly sold to reduce cholesterol and by extension heart disease. Cayenne could eliminate all that and that is why the medical establishment doesn’t want people to know about it.

Before discussing the benefits of cayenne pepper and heart health however, let’s consider the result of the billions that have been “invested” in the name of curing heart disease for if there is one fundamental criterion by which government and medical institutional spending should be judged, it should be by the results.

According to a May 25th, 2006 report by the BBC, heart disease is the biggest killer in the United Kingdom. Across the pond in the United States, the National Heart Foundation says, “Coronary heart disease is the single greatest cause of death for both men and women in the US, eclipsing all other causes, including cancer and lung diseases. Every year more than 479,000 Americans die of coronary heart disease.”

Clearly, the current allopathic (traditional Western medicine) approach is lacking.

The unholy collusion between government, pharmaceutical interests and institutional medicine, with its powerful financial influence, pervades nearly every facet of society. Homeopathic medicine is not only derided but persecuted and even criminalized while allopathic medicine is deified as the only way to health.

In reality, the joining of the best of allopathic and homeopathic interventions would be ideal, but for that to happen, results would have to be the final arbiter as to an intervention’s effectiveness, not corporate and governmental interests.

Background Info

So, what is cayenne? You probably recognize its name as a potent condiment often used in cooking, but its value lies well beyond its culinary uses. It is an herb that is nothing short of amazing.

It is a multi-talented herb that is also known, although obliquely so, as African red pepper, American red pepper, Spanish pepper, capsicum, and bird pepper. Cayenne is derived from two related plants. Specifically, the American variety (Capsicum minimum) is distinguished from its African counterpart the African birdseye cayenne (Capsicum fastigiatum) although both are highly beneficial to man. The African birdseye cayenne is the most pungent with small, yellowish red pods while the American variety is distinguished with its herb-sized plants and larger fruit or pods.

The food value of cayenne is known, of course, but its real value is as a medicinal and nutritional herb. Its medical uses include using it for wounds, heart disease, heart attacks, heart problems at large, ulcers, congestion, colds, chills, bleeding of the lungs, neuralgia, lumbago, hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, high and low blood pressure, indigestion, and kidney and related problems. (This is by no means a comprehensive list as to the herb’s effectiveness.)

Cayenne is a stimulant and as such is an activator, carrier, and accentuator to other herbs as well. Still, it can and should be used by itself. Let’s discuss now some of those ancillary uses before we talk in depth about capsicum and heart health.

Cayenne pepper anti-fungal properties are tangible although this is not its primary health benefit. It has been shown in some studies to be active against collectotrichum and phomopsis, both of which are fungal pathogens. These important fungal pathogens affect strawberries and other fruits and are not directly related to humans per se.

However, cayenne immune system benefits are of interest to researchers. Currently, it is being studied by many nutritional supplement companies for its therapeutic and nutritional benefits. If you desire a natural anti-fungal aid, garlic is preferred over cayenne for garlic has long been known for its anti-fungal properties. (In Russia, it has long been called “the Russian penicillin.”)

Health Benefits of Cayenne Pepper

Capsicum increases metabolism by immediately influencing the venous structure. It is remarkable with its immediate effects on the circulatory system as it feeds the vital elements into the cell structure of capillaries, veins, arteries and helps adjust blood pressure to normal levels. Yes, cayenne pepper for high blood pressure is certainly one of its core uses, but it cleans the arteries as well.

It also stimulates the peristaltic motion of the intestines and aids in assimilation and elimination. When taken internally, it warms the body and has even been used by some herbalist doctors to help severe frostbite as cayenne not only facilitates the healing of the flesh but it helps rebuild tissue as well.

Notwithstanding its hot taste, it is superb for rebuilding the tissue in the stomach for it actually facilitates rapid healing with stomach and intestinal ulcers. Capsicum for ulcers is not something most would have considered due to its native calidity but the author can testify to this aspect of this wonder herb.

Its Dramatic Effects

Dr. John Christopher, the famed natural herbalist, was persecuted relentlessly by the government while assisting patients in curing cancer, heart disease, pleurisy, tuberculosis, infertility, rheumatism, leukemia, and other maladies. One of his greatest stories in his long career was how he could instantly stop a heart attack if he could get the patient to drink a glass of warm cayenne water. In his writings, he said, “A teaspoon of cayenne should bring the patient out of the heart attack.”

(While this is not directly related to heart health, with internal hemorrhaging, if the patient can drink a glass of extra warm water with cayenne, Dr. Christopher wrote, “…by the count of ten the bleeding will stop. Instead of all the pressure being centralized, it is equalized and the clotting becomes more rapid.”)

Perhaps now you can see why cayenne is regarded as a “miracle herb.” With over 700,000 Americans experiencing a stroke each year and almost half a million dying of heart disease, the cure to a healthy heart is as close as your local grocery store. The cayenne detoxification drink, when taken religiously, will dramatically improve your heart health as well as your venous structure.

Side Effects of Cayenne Pepper

What are the side effects of cayenne pepper? What are its bad points? Well, it is certainly hot to the taste. Drinking what the author calls the cayenne detoxification drink is not for the faint of heart (on second thought perhaps it is!). When starting to drink the cayenne pepper detoxification drink, it tends to come out of the body’s orifices with a burning sensation.

Not to worry, though. It is very beneficial. In fact, capsicum will help clear up hemorrhoids if taken regularly — especially if the hemorrhoid sufferer changes their diet to one more rich in fiber.

To mitigate its heat, the author suggests starting with just a half a teaspoon of cayenne in a glass of eight ounces of lukewarm water (or even less if desired). Have another glass of just water nearby as drinking cold water after the cayenne drink will help mitigate the calidity of the drink’s after effects. Yes, you can take it in capsule form but its effects won’t be immediate the way it would be by direct application.

There are also some who suggest combining lemon water and cayenne for fast metabolism. (There are also some who think that a combination of cayenne lemon fat burn facilitates adipose loss. That is debatable, but drinking a concoction of lemon water and cayenne for fast metabolism is certainly more palatable.)

Drinking the capsicum detoxification drink daily will produce noticeable benefits, and the body will acclimate very quickly to its native heat. Within a month or two, you will be able to drink a tablespoon of capsicum without too much discomfort.

Yes, you could go on a cayenne fruit diet, but drinking it is easier and more convenient. One last comment: no significant side effects have been reported. Of course, taking too much of anything is not healthy, a problem never really attributed to cayenne due to its heat. In terms of health side effects, there are none. As with all things, though, use with discretion and wisdom.

Conclusion

If you are concerned about your heart health, or if you are suffering from heart ailments, cayenne should be a daily staple in your diet. This incredible herb is a wonder and can tremendously affect your health. Cayenne is one of the greatest health secrets in the world.

Cayenne certainly is a great condiment, used with panache by great cooks and chefs, but its true value lies in its medicinal qualities. Slowly and surely, its remarkable benefits are gaining awareness by a public becoming increasingly disenchanted by traditional medicine’s non-causal approach. Perhaps now you can see why cayenne is a prince among herbs.

Anxiety Attacks – Is Lack of Purpose Causing Your Anxiety?

Why do you have anxiety? Why are you prone to panic attacks? What’s wrong with you? Why are you worried so much? These are some of the questions that might be flashing through your mind if you suffer from generalized anxiety or panic attacks.

There are a lot of reasons that people experience anxiety at different points in their lives or as a sustained problem. Traumatic events, upheaval, financial, personal or emotional strain and longer term biological and behavioral factors may come into play. For some people, however, they experience anxiety because they lack meaning or purpose in their life. 

So many of us often ask the question, why are we here? What is our purpose? What were we meant to contribute? Some answers seem obvious; others are more elusive and leave us searching for answers. 

We all have a basic idea that we should strive to be good people, help others, give to those less fortunate and work hard with honesty and integrity. But so many of us wonder how to achieve our full potential, how to achieve great things, whatever that particular concept means to us as individuals, and live a complete life. 

So many people are bored, stymied, feel held back or incomplete because they haven´t achieved or accomplished what they think they are capable of. If you´re having this nagging feeling of not reaching your potential it can make you anxious. 

If you feel trapped in your job, your residence, your location, your family situation and your current life, it can contribute to anxiety, phobias or panic attacks. These attacks are simply manifestations of the fear you feel about being trapped in your current life situation. Fears are often a mirror through which we can view ourselves. 

Sometimes simply finding an outlet to give your life greater meaning or purpose can reduce your feelings of anxiety and panic. Monumental changes to your life are not usually necessary but finding a passion, exploring and developing it can be instrumental in providing you with a more positive outlook. 

Going back to school, changing your career, developing a talent or getting involved in your community can all be ways to find a more complete purpose in life. When we feel we are living up to our potential, using our talents and fulfilling our purpose we feel better about ourselves, others and our own lives. Feeling good is really the best tool in fighting anxiety, panic and fear. 

Regardless of your age, profession or life circumstances you can make small changes that have big mental impacts. Happiness isn´t measured in dollars; it´s really about being fulfilled. Some people find this feeling at church or with their own spirituality, while others find it through community involvement and outreach. 

Still others find satisfaction in pursuing hobbies, changing careers, learning a new occupation or developing a new talent. Contributions big and small are all important to the world and you need to find your little piece of happiness. 

Once you do, you will feel better, experience less anxiety and lead a generally more fulfilled life.  Start your search now. 

Food Delivery Services – A History

Food delivery services offer vital assistance to thousands if not millions of people in the country and around the world. Essentially food delivery services are an important support system for those that want help in ensuring they have well cooked, prepared meals delivered to their door. But where does the service originate? And how does it help people on a day to day basis?

The first food delivery services started during the Second World War, particularly throughout the Blitz where many homes were destroyed and large swathes of the population were left with no kitchens in which to cook their meals. The idea was developed from the work of the Women’s Volunteer Service who had previously delivered meals to servicemen; transferring the process to families that had lost their homes due to bombing raids.

Following the war the food delivery programmes developed by the Women’s Volunteer Service were continued. It is believed that the first use of the service occurred as early as 1947 in Hemel Hempstead. At this stage, rather than the vans that are used today, the meals were delivered using old prams. At this stage the meals that were being delivered were predominantly pre cooked and kept warm. In the modern age most local councils have developed similar services although predominantly councils now use frozen ready meals rather than delivering hot food.

Whilst it was in the UK that the first food delivery networks were created the idea soon spread around the world. In the United States the inaugural home delivery service for food was created in Philadelphia. From 1954 onwards this service strived to feed those that were housebound, ensuring that they received their quota of dietary requirements and would not go hungry. The Philadelphia model was used across the country, first in Columbus and then New York.

Australians were also quick to realise the benefits of food delivery services for the elderly. The first service in this country was started in 1952, apparently delivered by a woman on a tricycle before the Red Cross took over to ensure supply could meet the demand. Many other services started throughout Australia, including one in Port Adelaide and Sydney. Today food delivery programmes are well established and organised on regional basis.

Heart Health and Clean Arteries

Clogged arteries are responsible for a number of ailments including heart pain, high blood pressure, and peripheral arterial disease. Many of my male patients are shocked when I tell them that plaque build-up may even be causing their erectile dysfunction. How can that be? All of these conditions stem from the same cause, insufficient blood flow through arteries.

In the first part of this series, you learned how coronary artery disease and blocked arteries could lead to serious health consequences. I recommended some non-drug, non-surgical treatments you can do on your own to both prevent and improve arterial disease and its symptoms.

Now I’d like to expand on an alternative method of dissolving plaque and increasing blood flow in arteries using specific vitamins and safe chemical compounds. This therapy is called oral chelation.

What Is Chelation Therapy?

Chelation therapy has been used since about 1955 for treating heart/arterial disease. The idea of using chelation for heart disease sprang from using chelation for toxic lead, arsenic, and mercury levels. A compound called calcium disodium EDTA, an amino acid, binds to those metals. The EDTA-bound metal is then removed from your body through urination.

Using this toxic metal removal model, it was thought that a variation of the same compound, disodium EDTA, would bind to plaque and remove it from arteries. Based on this same principle, oral chelation formulas were created.

Oral Chelation Supplements

People have taken oral chelation supplements for years as an alternative treatment for coronary artery disease. In fact, because of their widespread use, the National Institute of Health recently began a clinical study to document the specific benefits of chelation therapy.

As I tell my patients who ask me about oral chelation formulas, I feel the better ones contain a lot of heart/artery-health promoting vitamins, minerals, and food-derived chemicals that can be of benefit in promoting heart and artery health. Let’s look, then, at what I think a good oral chelation supplement might contain:

B-Vitamins – like B6, B12, and folic acid, known to be crucial to heart health in reducing homocysteine, a chemical that promotes plaque. They also maintain energy.

Magnesium, potassium, selenium – these are heart-healthy minerals that keep heart muscle functioning correctly, regulate heartbeat, and prevent cholesterol from oxidizing and turning into plaque.

Bromelain, malic acid, garlic – these food-based compounds from pineapples, green apples, and garlic dissolve saturated fats and prevent them from hardening into plaques.

TMG (trimethylglycine) – also known as betaine, derived from beets, this chemical IS actually FDA-approved for treating high homocysteine levels.

EDTA – as noted above, this chemical binds to arterial plaque and removes it. EDTA is also FDA, and USDA, approved as a food additive.

NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) – a chemical found in high protein foods, it is an amino acid that, like EDTA, also acts as a toxin binding/removal agent.

How Does Oral Chelation Work?

Oral chelation formulas come in pill form and are taken like you would any other supplement. They go to work by binding to mineral deposits (namely calcium which plaque is), breaking it down and liquefying it so it can be removed from your arteries. Drinking plenty of filtered water daily will help flush the chelated minerals and toxins out of your blood.

It’s a good idea not to take any mineral supplements until a few hours after you take a chelation formula as the minerals can be chelated out of your system. Prescription medicine should also be taken a few hours apart from chelation supplements.

Vitamin C and Vitamin E supplements should be taken as they are antioxidants which help prevent oxidation of cholesterol into plaques.

Benefits of Oral Chelation Formulas

There are several arterial health conditions which can benefit from the artery-flushing effects of oral chelation. They are:

Coronary artery disease, or CAD – blockages in the heart can cause heart attack.

Peripheral arterial disease, or PAD – lack of blood flow to legs and feet causing pain.

Erectile dysfunction – resulting from blocked arteries, lack of penile blood flow.

Carotid artery disease – decreased blood flow to the brain, can cause stroke.

Although oral chelation therapy may still be a controversial subject, it has its following of loyal supporters. According to Everyday Health, a recent survey of people who used chelation therapy, 62% said it gave them a sense of control over their heart disease. For optimum effectiveness, chelation supplements should be combined with a heart/artery healthy diet, no smoking, and beneficial exercise.

As with any supplement, read labels and be sure you have a quality oral chelation formula with ingredients such as those mentioned above. Consult a doctor familiar with the use of oral chelation formulas. They can monitor you, ensure their correct usage, and avoid any possible adverse effects that may arise.

Ice Cream Vans Meltdown in London, New Emission Regulations

It is not a good time to be an ice cream vendor in London these days. Transport for London has a new legislation regarding larger vans and minibuses taking effect from 3 January 2012. I am a self-employed vendor and have made numerous enquiries along with my colleagues struggling with what to do regarding updating our ice cream vans or purchasing and fitting an approved filter that complies. Most of us found it very hard to afford to convert a new van as they can cost tens of thousands of pounds or more especially if you were to buy a professionally built conversion.

We have spoken to exhaust suppliers listed on the TFL’s website and we had a great deal of conflicting and technical information. We were also told from many sources that there is no perfect application for an ice cream van and that we were probably better off selling the vans out of London and replacing them with ones that are Euro 3 or above which would then comply. The filters can cost up to five thousand pounds, £5000, for a system and most if not all of these systems have not been tried and tested on the vans that are idle for up to ten hours a day. Our applications are pretty unique as we are often in one place and idle for a whole day (i.e events and pitch’s). Ice cream vans need to have their engines on in order to power a soft machine or the option would be to turn the engine off and just serve scooped vanilla ice cream.

Some cheaper and basic systems would most probably block up while trading and there were some regenerating systems that should clear themselves whist driving but you would need to go for a good old drive down the motorway in order to clear. There were a few that could regenerate while stationary but we felt that we were not completely convinced and could find ourselves in trouble come the summer months either looking to replace an exhaust again or to replace the van completely. We have not had a great season and the rounds had really been depressed this year but we felt that we would probably be much safer to invest in a new conversion rather going down the road of chancing an exhaust installation.

In a few years, we may have to comply with Euro 4 applications so it only made sense to buy a van that would be compliant when the next legislation is applied. The legacy of this is that there will probably be quite a few less ice cream vendors trading within the TFL zone or within the M25. I know of a few of the older generation of ice cream vendors who have decided to put their vans for sale and have call it a day.

High School Wrestling: Diet and Weight Loss Options

As wrestling season draws near, wrestlers begin to contemplate the weight class in which they may wrestle. Wrestlers often believe that they will be more competitive at the lowest weight they can reach without sacrificing their strength and endurance. This isn’t always the case. Too often, wrestlers end up dehydrated. They end up starving themselves and their performance suffers greatly.

If you’re looking for an article on cutting weight, this isn’t it. If you’re the kind of wrestler who can lose ten pounds in wrestling practice, this article may not interest you either. I could never sweat off a lot of weight, so I was always more interested in manipulating my diet to lose weight. There are, of course, a myriad of diets to choose from. I simply want to discuss ten diets of which I am familiar. Maybe one of them will interest you and you can research it further. Let’s explore.

1. Low Carb/High Protein Diet

The Atkins Diet is probably the most famous low carb diet. So, what exactly is a low carb diet? A low carb diet limits carbohydrates such as bread, pasta, cereals, grains, potatoes and other starchy vegetables, fruit, and sometimes even milk.

The theory is that carbohydrates raise blood sugar levels which in turn raise insulin levels. Spiking insulin levels is considered bad because the idea is that insulin tells the body to store carbohydrates as body fat and prevents the body from accessing body fat as a fuel source. Supposedly, if you follow a low carb diet plan you can lose excess body fat without having to drastically limit your food intake.

Some low carb diets focus on limiting carbohydrates while increasing one’s intake of fat and protein.

Some low carb diets focus more on the glycemic index. The glycemic index essentially measures how much a given food raises one’s blood sugar levels. For instance, white rice may have a glycemic index of 58 while broccoli may only have a glycemic index of 15. White bread may have a glycemic index as high as 71. The idea is that a diet composed of low glycemic foods will lead to lower insulin levels which in turn may help one lose weight.

Patrick Holford takes the glycemic index one step further and uses a concept called the glycemic load. The glycemic load takes into account the glycemic index as well as the total carbs in a given amount of food. For instance, a bowl of steel-cut oats (1 oz.) has 2 GL while a bowl of corn flakes has 21 GL. In addition, half an apple has 3 GL while a banana has 12 GL. That is quite a difference. Holford is a big fan of oats. He claims in his book The Holford Low GL Diet, “There are specific foods and food combinations that cause rapid weight loss.” He claims that you will never feel hungry on his diet. You limit the number of GLs you eat in a day and you combine carbs and protein at each meal.

Tim Ferriss champions a diet he refers to as the Slow-Carb Diet. On this regimen one avoids carbohydrates like bread, pasta, cereals, grains, potatoes, etc. Then simply choose one protein, one legume, and one vegetable for each meal. For example, breakfast might be scrambled eggs, black beans, and mixed vegetables. Lunch might be beef, pinto beans, and mixed vegetables. And, dinner might be chicken breast, lentils, and asparagus. Eat as much as you want at each meal and eat up to six times a day. But, always avoid carbs and dairy products and always include a protein, legume, and vegetable.

Some low carb diet books include Dr. Atkins’ New Diet Revolution, Protein Power, The Zone Diet, The Carbohydrate Addict’s Diet, The South Beach Diet, The Greenwich Diet, The No-Grain Diet, and Sugar Busters.

I suppose the main attraction of low carb diets is that one can burn fat and spare muscle while not having to restrict the amount one eats drastically. On the other hand, low carb diets can make one fatigued and irritable until one gets used to the low carb regimen. Keep in mind that there are several different versions of low carb diets.

2. Paleolithic Diet (Paleo Diet)

The Paleolithic (Paleo) diet seeks to replicate what humans ate during the Paleolithic Era. This diet may also be referred to as the Stone Age Diet, Cave Man Diet, or Hunter-Gatherer Diet. The Paleo diet is purported to promote weight loss as well as provide high fiber, protein, and omega-3 fats.

Foods You Can Eat:

  • Lean Meat (skinless chicken breast, turkey, cuts of lean beef like sirloin and extra-lean hamburger, cuts of lean pork, seafood)
  • Eggs
  • Fruits including berries
  • Vegetables including root vegetables like carrots
  • Nuts such as walnuts, macadamia, almonds, pecans, and pistachios
  • Seeds such as pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, and sunflower seeds
  • Olive oil, flaxseed oil, nut oils, fish oil, canola oil, and avocado

Foods To Avoid:

  • Grains
  • Pasta
  • Bread
  • Cereals
  • Potatoes
  • Sugar
  • Beans
  • Dairy Products

The Paleo diet may seem similar to the low carb diet and it is in some ways. For instance, it doesn’t allow grain products. However, the Paleo Diet does allow fruits. In addition, it makes a distinction between lean meat and fatty meat which I think is beneficial. Moreover, cheese can be eaten on a low carb diet but dairy is not allowed on the Paleo Diet because it would not have been a food consumed during the Paleolithic era.

I like the Paleo Diet because it provides fiber, protein, and healthy fats.

3. Anabolic Diet

The Anabolic Diet was developed by Dr. Mauro Di Pasquale. He developed this diet primarily for bodybuilders looking for an alternative to steroids and other drugs. He states, “The Anabolic Diet maximizes the production and utilization of the Big 3 growth producers – testosterone, growth hormone, and insulin – and does it naturally. It also shifts the body’s metabolism from that of a sugar burning, fat producing machine to that of a fat burning machine.” The Anabolic Diet is a high fat/high protein/low carb diet with a twist. The Anabolic Diet employs a method called carb cycling. For example, you eat a high fat/high protein/low carb diet for five days followed by a high carb diet for two days.

A more generic term for this diet would be cyclic ketogenic diet or simply carb cycling. The idea is that you must eat fat to burn fat. You can find specific guidelines about what to eat on low carb versus high carb days online.

So, it’s not as strict as a low carb diet because you can carb up for a day or two. You still need to watch the total amount of calories that you consume because you’re not a bodybuilder trying to gain weight, you’re a wrestler trying to stay lean or even lose weight.

I’ve never tried this diet before and have no idea how it would work for a wrestler. I suppose, in theory, that one could eat low carb during the week and carb up on Saturday when tournaments are usually held. On the other hand, eating a lot of fat seems like a strange idea to most of us. If this diet interests you, I would suggest doing an internet search for anabolic diet or cyclic ketogenic diet to learn more.

4. Intermittent Fasting (IF)

This is a way of eating of that involves cycling periods of fasting (i.e. not eating) and eating. You can fast for 24 hours once or twice a week. The idea is that fasting twice a week reduces the total number of calories one takes in during any given week. For instance, you may have dinner at 6:00 pm one evening and not eat again until 6:00 pm the following evening. If you normally consume three meals a day, then you would simply skip breakfast and lunch two days a week but still have dinner on those days. Sure you might get a bit hungry, but it’s only 24 hours and you’ll only do it about twice a week. You never technically have to go a day without eating. If you eat at 6:00 pm on Monday, you can still eat on Tuesday; you just have to wait until 6:00 pm again. A good book on the subject of IF is Eat Stop Eat by Brad Pilon.

A somewhat similar fasting routine is called The Warrior Diet created by Ori Hofmekler. On this regimen, you eat one main meal at night and you have the option of eating a small amount of food during the day. You follow this routine every day. You can eat some fruits and vegetables during the day. You can also eat small amounts of lean meats and eggs or a low-carb protein shake. You eat no grains or starches during the day. At your main evening meal, you can consume essentially anything you want but in a certain order. You eat vegetables first, then protein, and then if you’re still hungry you can eat some carbohydrates.

While using the intermittent fasting method, you still want to eat healthy. While you can basically eat what you want when not fasting, you still want to eat fruits and vegetables and healthy sources of protein and carbohydrates. You can eat other foods too (e.g. a dessert) but don’t use your non-fasting period as an excuse to binge on junk food.

5. Body for Life

Bodybuilder and entrepreneur Bill Phillips was the founder of Muscle Media 2000 magazine and later acquired the ESA supplement company. He is perhaps most known for authoring the book Body for Life: 12 Weeks to Mental and Physical Strength. In this book he outlines a workout strategy and dietary strategy to transform one’s body.

The dietary strategy involves eating six small meals a day which is believed to promote stable blood sugar and insulin levels. Small meals are also believed to be easier to digest and assimilate than three larger meals.

What can you eat for each small meal? You can eat a portion of protein and a portion of carbohydrate. You are also encouraged to eat a serving of vegetables with some meals. A portion is about the size of the palm of your hand or your clenched fist. A potato the size of your clenched fist is a portion as is an apple. Two slices of whole wheat bread is a portion. A skinless chicken breast the size of your palm is a portion. You can also use MRP (meal replacement products) shakes and nutrition bars like Myoplex, Met-Rx, Meso-Tech, Muscle Meals, etc. that provide protein, carbs, and other nutrients all in one bar or shake.

Possible Meal Ideas:

  • One omelet and two slices of whole-wheat toast
  • Egg whites and oatmeal
  • Pancakes made with egg whites, oatmeal, protein powder, and fat-free yogurt
  • Combine one portion of low-fat cottage cheese and one portion of fat-free, sugar-free yogurt
  • One serving of chocolate MRP shake
  • Turkey burger on a whole-wheat bun
  • Chicken breast, steamed brown rice, and broccoli
  • Grilled sirloin steak, potato, mixed vegetables
  • One MRP nutrition bar

You are also encouraged to drink 10 glasses of water a day. You can consume one tablespoon of healthy fat a day such as olive, safflower, canola, sunflower, or flax seed oil. You can also consume small amounts of natural peanut butter and avocado.

You are encouraged to take one day off a week and eat whatever you want.

This plan is nice because you don’t have to count calories and you probably won’t get hungry eating six small meals a day. It may be hard to follow if you have a busy schedule.

6. Fit for Life

When Harvey Diamond co-authored Fit for Life, he helped bring the concept of natural hygiene into the mainstream. This way of eating isn’t just about how much you eat but also when and how you eat it. This regimen is based on the principle of proper food combining. The idea is that different foods are broken down differently by the body and therefore should be eaten separately. Harvey Diamond makes a distinction between live foods (high-water-content food like fresh fruits and vegetables) and dead food (e.g. processed foods).

The Guidelines:

  • Fruit is always eaten alone at least two to three hours away from any other food.
  • Never eat more than one concentrated food (i.e. protein or starch) per meal.
  • Never combine starches and proteins (e.g. cereal and milk, bread and cheese, pasta and ground beef, fish and rice).
  • You can combine protein with vegetables or starches and vegetables.
  • Fat (e.g. butter, olive oil) is considered neutral. However, don’t combine fat with protein.
  • Eggs and dairy products are discouraged.
  • Meat is discouraged but should be eaten alone or with vegetables if consumed.

Meal Ideas:

  • Breakfast – Fruit is encouraged because it is the food with the highest water content and is considered to be the best food to consume. So, you could eat two or more oranges or two apples or two bananas or other fruits and fruit combinations. However, if you don’t like fruit you could have scrambled eggs with tomato and broccoli (i.e. protein and vegetables) or toast with butter (i.e. starch and fat). But, do not have eggs and toast or cereal and milk.
  • Lunch – You could have a large vegetable salad with some olive oil and lemon. You could skip the olive oil on your salad and put some pieces of grilled chicken on it. You could have a vegetable salad and some bread sticks. You could have vegetable soup and some bread sticks. Alternatively, you could have avocado slices and other vegetables (e.g. tomatoes) between two slices of whole-grain bread. You could have a large baked potato with butter and vegetables (just be sure to steer clear of bacon bits, cheese, and chili).
  • Dinner – You could have fish (or chicken or beef), vegetables, and a vegetable salad. Or, you could have rice (or couscous or pasta) with vegetables, and a vegetable salad. Or, if you like potatoes, then you could have a big baked potato with butter and vegetables.
  • If you want milk, yogurt, or ice cream then eat it alone at least two or three hours away from other food.
  • If you want fruit for a bedtime snack, then eat it alone at least two or three hours after dinner.

The motivational speaker and self-help guru Tony Robbins is an advocate of food combining. I’ve never tried it before. The good thing is that it focuses a lot on fruit and vegetables. In addition, your calories may be limited (helping with weight loss) when you can’t combine starches and proteins, but at least you can still consume them if you choose.

7. High Carb/Low Fat Diet

Some doctors and nutritionists recommend a high card/low fat diet to lose weight and stay healthy – the exact opposite of the low carb advocates. Some names associated with low fat diets include Walter Kempner, Nathan Pritikin, Dean Ornish, and John McDougall. According to Dr. McDougall, his diet is “a diet of plant foods, including whole grains and whole grain products (such as pasta, tortillas, and whole-grain bread), a wide assortment of vegetables, and fruit.”

The advocates of these diets claim that a person can enjoy unlimited quantities of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains without feeling hungry. These diets contain less fat and more fiber than other diets.

According to Dr. McDougall, “Carbohydrate is the body’s preferred fuel for daily activities and high-intensity exercise performance. Following a low-carbohydrate regime will impair performance.”

A baked potato is only about 160 calories and essentially fat free. An apple is only about 100 calories and also essentially fat free. A slice of whole wheat bread is only about 75 calories and essentially fat free. A bowl of oatmeal is about 165 calories, 4 grams of fat, and 4 grams of fiber.

In contrast, a 3 oz. patty of 85% lean ground beef (broiled) is about 213 calories and 13 grams of fat. And, a McDonald’s Quarter Pounder with Cheese is about 510 calories and 26 grams of fat. Moreover, a Snicker’s Bar is about 270 calories and 14 grams of fat.

I’m not sure why everyone is so worried about cereals, potatoes, fruits, and breads. You can eat a lot of those foods for few calories if you don’t add condiments.

Martin Katahn, author of The T-Factor Diet, believes that it is mainly fat in your diet that determines your body fat. He contends that protein and carbohydrate calories don’t really matter that much. So, his approach is to count the fat grams in the food one eats and to keep the number low. He does, however, warn people to steer clear of highly processed fat-free desserts and snacks. Get your carbohydrates from fresh fruits, vegetables, and grains. In addition, eat lean meat, chicken, and fish.

8. Satiety Index

The Satiety Index (developed by Susanna Holt, PhD.) measures the extent to which certain foods provide satiety (i.e. fill you up and satisfy your hunger). Certain foods are simply better at filling you up than others.

For the most part, foods that are high in protein, water, and fiber provide the most satiety.

Carbohydrates are also better at producing satiety than fatty foods.

All foods on the index are compared with white bread which is given the rank of 100.

Some Satiety Food Rankings:

  • Croissant – 47%
  • Doughnuts – 68%
  • Yogurt – 88%
  • Corn Flakes – 118%
  • White Rice – 138%
  • Cheese – 146%
  • Eggs – 150%
  • Whole Meal Bread – 157%
  • Beef – 176%
  • Popcorn – 154%
  • Apples – 197%
  • Oranges – 202%
  • Oatmeal – 209%
  • Potatoes, Boiled – 323%

As you can see, potatoes provide a much higher level of satiety than a croissant. Similarly, oatmeal is more satisfying than a doughnut. In addition, eggs are more satisfying than yogurt. Seemingly, a sandwich made with whole meal bread with some lean beef or tuna along with an apple could make a satisfying and filling lunch.

A concept related to satiety is caloric density or energy density. Caloric density is the number of calories in a specific amount of food. Foods high in fat have the highest energy density while foods high in water content have the lowest energy density.

For instance, cucumbers, celery, lettuce, tomatoes, broccoli, grapefruit, strawberries, watermelon, cantaloupe, carrots, oranges, and apples are very low in caloric density. Some other low caloric density foods include oatmeal, grapes, low-fat cottage cheese, peas, corn on the cob, potatoes, rice, and pasta.

In contrast, foods such as French fries, chocolate cake, pretzels, croissants, doughnuts, onion rings, chocolate chip cookies, bacon, milk chocolate bars, potato chips, and peanuts are much higher in caloric density. Even though pretzels are essentially fat free, they are high in energy density because they lack water and fiber.

Fresh corn (e.g. steamed corn or corn on the cob) has a caloric density of 0.92. However, a corn muffin has a caloric density of 4.14 and corn bread has a caloric density of 4.27. So, choose a big bowl of steamed corn if you’re hungry.

Some low-fat cottage cheese and grapes could make a satisfying and filling meal.

9. Food Exchange System

The food exchange system is a dietary regimen most commonly associated with diabetic individuals. However, the food exchange system can be used by any individual as a guide to help them lose weight. Following this regimen can help one to plan balanced and nutritious meals.

The foods in this system are divided up into categories: starches (e.g. bread, cereals and grains, starchy vegetables, beans and peas), fruits, milk and yogurt, meat and meat substitutes, vegetables, and fats.

You need to know what constitutes a serving size. For instance, a serving of starch could be ¾ cup of ready-to-eat unsweetened cereal, 1 slice of bread, or ½ a bagel. A serving of fruit may be one small apple, banana, or orange. A serving of milk may be 1 cup of fat-free skim milk. A serving of meat may be 1 ounce of meat, poultry, fish, or cheese. A serving of vegetables may be ½ cup of cooked vegetables or 1 cup of raw vegetables. A serving of fats may be 1 tsp. of butter or 1 tsp. of olive oil. These are just a few of the examples. There are also free foods like 1 tbsp. of fat-free mayonnaise or ¼ cup of salsa. In addition, there are ways of determining exchanges for sweets and combination foods (e.g. casseroles, pizza, and soups).

For a 1,200 Calorie Meal Plan You May Eat:

  • 5 Starches
  • 2 Fruits
  • 2 Milks
  • 5 Meats
  • 3 Vegetables
  • 4 Fats

So, you might have a breakfast that contains 1 starch, 1 fruit, 1 milk, and 1 fat. Then you would divide the remainder of your exchanges amongst lunch, dinner, and possibly snacks. Some people find this easier than counting calories.

A somewhat similar regimen may involve using the original USDA Food Pyramid as a guide for eating. According to Jane Kirby (a registered dietitian) and the American Dietetic Association, one can use the food pyramid to plan a weight-loss diet.

A Possible 1,200 Calorie Meal Plan:

  • 5 Bread group servings
  • 3 Vegetable group servings
  • 2 Fruit group servings
  • 2 Milk group servings
  • 5 ounces total for a day for Meat group (divide up into 2 or 3 servings if you want from lean meats or eggs)

10. Counting Calories

Calorie counting is nothing new.

A Los Angeles physician named Dr. Lulu Hunt Peters published a book entitled Diet and Health, With a Key to the Calories in 1918. She recommended consuming no more than 1,200 calories per day, with somewhat more allowed after one’s goal weight was reached.

Calories in Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat:

  • Carbohydrate = 4 calories per gram
  • Protein = 4 calories per gram
  • Fat = 9 calories per gram

Keep in mind that 3,500 calories = 1 pound of fat. Therefore if you cut 500 calories a day from your diet, you’ll lose approximately one pound a week (7 days x 500 calories = 3,500 calories).

A simple formula for losing weight is to take your current bodyweight times 10 and eat that number of calories daily to lose weight. For example, a wrestler who weighs 150 pounds would eat 1,500 calories daily (150 x 10 = 1,500). To maintain your weight, take your bodyweight times 15. A 125 pound wrestler wishing to maintain his weight would eat 1,875 calories daily (125 x 15 = 1,875).

Calorie counting is becoming popular again. For example, you may have noticed packages of 100-calorie snacks in the supermarket.

You can still find books listing calorie counts for common foods as well as restaurant foods. And, almost every food at the supermarket contains nutrition information including calories.

Calorie counting can be inconvenient. Individuals sometimes get hungry on a calorie-controlled diet. Nonetheless, calorie counting works for many people.

Final Words

The best advice I have to give is to simply wrestle at your natural weight. But, I know that many of will choose not to because you think you’ll be more competitive at a lower weight. Some of you may have to cut weight to reach a certain body weight in order to make the team.

I used to eat a lot of oatmeal and other cereals, whole wheat bread, rice cakes, potatoes, apples, oranges, bananas, carrots, green beans, milk, yogurt, cheese, and lean meat during my high school wrestling career. I counted every calorie and limited my fat intake because that’s what worked for me.

It’s interesting to look back at what I ate. I ate a lot of oatmeal which is low on the glycemic load, low in caloric density (when cooked with water), relatively low in fat, and high on the satiety index. I didn’t know all of that back when I was wrestling. I just knew that oatmeal was low in calories and provided a filling breakfast.

I also ate a lot of apples and green beans. These foods are low in calories and fat, but are high in water content and fiber. In addition, I ate a lot of potatoes which are very high on the satiety index.

You may be different.

Perhaps you’re one of those guys that can lose 5 to 10 pounds of water weight in a practice. Or, perhaps you like meat and, therefore, a low carb diet would suit you better.

Even some of the greatest wrestlers can become disheartened with dieting and cutting weight. Three- time NCAA wrestling champion and Olympic silver medalist Barry Davis cracked once when faced with the strain of cutting weight. He almost missed the Big Ten Tournament in 1982 because of the pressure of cutting weight. Many other great wrestlers have had tough experiences cutting weight as well.

On the other hand, John Smith (two-time Olympic gold medalist and winner of multiple world championships) took a different approach to weight control. He disciplined himself to maintain year-round weight control (according to Wrestling Tough by Mike Chapman). Smith kept near his competition weight throughout the year.

Other wrestlers have had success by working hard and wrestling near their natural body weight and sometimes cutting no weight whatsoever.

If you decide to cut weight for wrestling, please don’t starve and dehydrate yourself. It’s unhealthy, dangerous, and will most likely hurt your performance. Try always to eat balanced and nutritious meals. If you decide to lose weight, figure out what works best for you.

Globalisation And Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects And Challenges

1. Overview of the Country and Primary Education System:

Tanzania covers 945,000 square kilometres, including approximately 60,000 square kilometres of inland water. The population is about 32 million people with an average annual growth rate of 2.8 percent per year. Females comprise 51% of the total population. The majority of the population resides on the Mainland, while the rest of the population resides in Zanzibar. The life expectancy is 50 years and the mortality rate is 8.8%. The economy depends upon Agriculture, Tourism, Manufacturing, Mining and Fishing. Agriculture contributes about 50% of GDP and accounting for about two-thirds of Tanzania’s exports. Tourism contributes 15.8%; and manufacturing, 8.1% and mining, 1.7%. The school system is a 2-7-4-2-3+ consisting of pre-primary, primary school, ordinary level secondary education, Advanced level secondary, Technical and Higher Education. Primary School Education is compulsory whereby parents are supposed to take their children to school for enrollment. The medium of instruction in primary is Kiswahili.

One of the key objectives of the first president J.K. Nyerere was development strategy for Tanzania as reflected in the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which to be ensuring that basic social services were available equitably to all members of society. In the education sector, this goal was translated into the 1974 Universal Primary Education Movement, whose goal was to make primary education universally available, compulsory, and provided free of cost to users to ensure it reached the poorest. As the strategy was implemented, large-scale increases in the numbers of primary schools and teachers were brought about through campaign-style programs with the help of donor financing. By the beginning of the 1980s, each village in Tanzania had a primary school and gross primary school enrollment reached nearly 100 percent, although the quality of education provided was not very high. From 1996 the education sector proceeded through the launch and operation of Primary Education Development Plan – PEDP in 2001 to date.

2. Globalization

To different scholars, the definition of globalization may be different. According to Cheng (2000), it may refer to the transfer, adaptation, and development of values, knowledge, technology, and behavioral norms across countries and societies in different parts of the world. The typical phenomena and characteristics associated with globalization include growth of global networking (e.g. internet, world wide e-communication, and transportation), global transfer and interflow in technological, economic, social, political, cultural, and learning areas, international alliances and competitions, international collaboration and exchange, global village, multi-cultural integration, and use of international standards and benchmarks. See also Makule (2008) and MoEC (2000).

3. Globalization in Education

In education discipline globalization can mean the same as the above meanings as is concern, but most specifically all the key words directed in education matters. Dimmock & Walker (2005) argue that in a globalizing and internalizing world, it is not only business and industry that are changing, education, too, is caught up in that new order. This situation provides each nation a new empirical challenge of how to respond to this new order. Since this responsibility is within a national and that there is inequality in terms of economic level and perhaps in cultural variations in the world, globalization seems to affect others positively and the vice versa (Bush 2005). In most of developing countries, these forces come as imposing forces from the outside and are implemented unquestionably because they do not have enough resource to ensure its implementation (Arnove 2003; Crossley & Watson, 2004).

There is misinterpretation that globalization has no much impact on education because the traditional ways of delivering education is still persisting within a national state. But, it has been observed that while globalization continues to restructure the world economy, there are also powerful ideological packages that reshape education system in different ways (Carnoy, 1999; Carnoy & Rhoten, 2002). While others seem to increase access, equity and quality in education, others affect the nature of educational management. Bush (2005) and Lauglo (1997) observe that decentralization of education is one of the global trends in the world which enable to reform educational leadership and management at different levels. They also argue that Decentralization forces help different level of educational management to have power of decision making related to the allocation of resources. Carnoy (1999) further portrays that the global ideologies and economic changes are increasingly intertwined in the international institutions that broadcast particular strategies for educational change. These include western governments, multilateral and bilateral development agencies and NGOs (Crossley & Watson 2004). Also these agencies are the ones which develop global policies and transfer them through funds, conferences and other means. Certainly, with these powerful forces education reforms and to be more specifically, the current reforms on school leadership to a large extent are influenced by globalization.

4. The School Leadership

In Tanzania the leadership and management of education systems and processes is increasingly seen as one area where improvement can and need to be made in order to ensure that education is delivered not only efficiently but also efficaciously. Although literatures for education leadership in Tanzania are inadequate, Komba in EdQual (2006) pointed out that research in various aspects of leadership and management of education, such as the structures and delivery stems of education; financing and alternative sources of support to education; preparation, nurturing and professional development of education leaders; the role of female educational leaders in improvement of educational quality; as will as the link between education and poverty eradication, are deemed necessary in approaching issues of educational quality in any sense and at any level. The nature of out of school factors that may render support to the quality of education e.g. traditional leadership institutions may also need to be looked into.

5. Impact of Globalization

As mentioned above, globalization is creating numerous opportunities for sharing knowledge, technology, social values, and behavioral norms and promoting developments at different levels including individuals, organizations, communities, and societies across different countries and cultures. Cheng (2000); Brown, (1999); Waters, (1995) pointed out the advantages of globalization as follows: Firstly it enable global sharing of knowledge, skills, and intellectual assets that are necessary to multiple developments at different levels. The second is the mutual support, supplement and benefit to produce synergy for various developments of countries, communities, and individuals. The third positive impact is creation of values and enhancing efficiency through the above global sharing and mutual support to serving local needs and growth. The fourth is the promotion of international understanding, collaboration, harmony and acceptance to cultural diversity across countries and regions. The fifth is facilitating multi-way communications and interactions, and encouraging multi-cultural contributions at different levels among countries.

The potential negative impacts of globalization are educationally concerned in various types of political, economic, and cultural colonization and overwhelming influences of advanced countries to developing countries and rapidly increasing gaps between rich areas and poor areas in different parts of the world. The first impact is increasing the technological gaps and digital divides between advanced countries and less developed countries that are hindering equal opportunities for fair global sharing. The second is creation of more legitimate opportunities for a few advanced countries to economically and politically colonize other countries globally. Thirdly is exploitation of local resources which destroy indigenous cultures of less advanced countries to benefit a few advanced countries. Fourthly is the increase of inequalities and conflicts between areas and cultures. And fifthly is the promotion of the dominant cultures and values of some advanced areas and accelerating cultural transplant from advanced areas to less developed areas.

The management and control of the impacts of globalization are related to some complicated macro and international issues that may be far beyond the scope of which I did not include in this paper. Cheng (2002) pointed out that in general, many people believe, education is one of key local factors that can be used to moderate some impacts of globalization from negative to positive and convert threats into opportunities for the development of individuals and local community in the inevitable process of globalization. How to maximize the positive effects but minimize the negative impacts of globalization is a major concern in current educational reform for national and local developments.

6. Globalization of Education and Multiple Theories

The thought of writing this paper was influenced by the multiple theories propounded by Yin Cheng, (2002). He proposed a typology of multiple theories that can be used to conceptualize and practice fostering local knowledge in globalization particularly through globalized education. These theories of fostering local knowledge is proposed to address this key concern, namely as the theory of tree, theory of crystal, theory of birdcage, theory of DNA, theory of fungus, and theory of amoeba. Their implications for design of curriculum and instruction and their expected educational outcomes in globalized education are correspondingly different.

The theory of tree assumes that the process of fostering local knowledge should have its roots in local values and traditions but absorb external useful and relevant resources from the global knowledge system to grow the whole local knowledge system inwards and outwards. The expected outcome in globalized education will be to develop a local person with international outlook, who will act locally and develop globally. The strength of this theory is that the local community can maintain and even further develop its traditional values and cultural identity as it grows and interacts with the input of external resources and energy in accumulating local knowledge for local developments.

The theory of crystal is the key of the fostering process to have “local seeds” to crystallize and accumulate the global knowledge along a given local expectation and demand. Therefore, fostering local knowledge is to accumulate global knowledge around some “local seeds” that may be to exist local demands and values to be fulfilled in these years. According to this theory, the design of curriculum and instruction is to identify the core local needs and values as the fundamental seeds to accumulate those relevant global knowledge and resources for education. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person who remains a local person with some global knowledge and can act locally and think locally with increasing global techniques. With local seeds to crystallize the global knowledge, there will be no conflict between local needs and the external knowledge to be absorbed and accumulated in the development of local community and individuals.

The theory of birdcage is about how to avoid the overwhelming and dominating global influences on the nation or local community. This theory contends that the process of fostering local knowledge can be open for incoming global knowledge and resources but at the same time efforts should be made to limit or converge the local developments and related interactions with the outside world to a fixed framework. In globalized education, it is necessary to set up a framework with clear ideological boundaries and social norms for curriculum design such that all educational activities can have a clear local focus when benefiting from the exposure of wide global knowledge and inputs. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person with bounded global outlook, who can act locally with filtered global knowledge. The theory can help to ensure local relevance in globalized education and avoid any loss of local identity and concerns during globalization or international exposure.

The theory of DNA represents numerous initiatives and reforms have made to remove dysfunctional local traditions and structures in country of periphery and replace them with new ideas borrowed from core countries. This theory emphasizes on identifying and transplanting the better key elements from the global knowledge to replace the existing weaker local components in the local developments. In globalizing education, the curriculum design should be very selective to both local and global knowledge with aims to choose the best elements from them. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person with locally and globally mixed elements, who can act and think with mixed local and global knowledge. The strength of this theory is its openness for any rational investigation and transplant of valid knowledge and elements without any local barrier or cultural burden. It can provide an efficient way to learn and improve the existing local practices and developments.

The theory of fungus reflects the mode of fostering local knowledge in globalization. This theory assumes that it is a faster and easier way to digest and absorb certain relevant types of global knowledge for nutrition of individual and local developments, than to create their own local knowledge from the beginning. From this theory, the curriculum and instruction should aim at enabling students to identify and learn what global knowledge is valuable and necessary to their own developments as well as significant to the local community. In globalizing education, the design of education activities should aim at digesting the complex global knowledge into appropriate forms that can feed the needs of individuals and their growth. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person equipped certain types of global knowledge, who can act and think dependently of relevant global knowledge and wisdom. Strengths of the theory is for some small countries, easily digest and absorb the useful elements of global knowledge than to produce their own local knowledge from the beginning. The roots for growth and development are based on the global knowledge instead of local culture or value.

The theory of amoeba is about the adaptation to the fasting changing global environment and the economic survival in serious international competitions. This theory considers that fostering local knowledge is only a process to fully use and accumulate global knowledge in the local context. Whether the accumulated knowledge is really local or the local values can be preserved is not a major concern. According to this theory, the curriculum design should include the full range of global perspectives and knowledge to totally globalize education in order to maximize the benefit from global knowledge and become more adaptive to changing environment. Therefore, to achieve broad international outlook and apply global knowledge locally and globally is crucial in education. And, cultural burdens and local values can be minimized in the design of curriculum and instruction in order to let students be totally open for global learning. The expected educational outcome is to develop a flexible and open person without any local identity, who can act and think globally and fluidly. The strengths of this theory are also its limitations particularly in some culturally fruit countries. There will be potential loss of local values and cultural identity in the country and the local community will potentially lose its direction and social solidarity during overwhelming globalization.

Each country or local community may have its unique social, economic and cultural contexts and therefore, its tendency to using one theory or a combination of theories from the typology in globalized education may be different from the other. To a great extent, it is difficult to say one is better than other even though the theories of tree, birdcage and crystal may be more preferred in some culturally rich countries. For those countries with less cultural assets or local values, the theories of amoeba and fungus may be an appropriate choice for development. However, this typology can provide a wide spectrum of alternatives for policy-makers and educators to conceptualize and formulate their strategies and practices in fostering local knowledge for the local developments. See more about the theories in Cheng (2002; 11-18)

7. Education Progress since Independence in Tanzania

During the first phase of Tanzania political governance (1961-1985) the Arusha Declaration, focusing on “Ujamaa” (African socialism) and self-reliance was the major philosophy. The nationalization of the production and provision of goods and services by the state and the dominance of ruling party in community mobilization and participation highlighted the “Ujamaa” ideology, which dominated most of the 1967-1985 eras. In early 1970s, the first phase government embarked on an enormous national campaign for universal access to primary education, of all children of school going age. It was resolved that the nation should have attained universal primary education by 1977. The ruling party by that time Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), under the leadership of the former and first president of Tanzania Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, directed the government to put in place mechanisms for ensuring that the directive, commonly known as the Musoma Resolution, was implemented. The argument behind that move was essentially that, as much as education was a right to each and every citizen, a government that is committed to the development of an egalitarian socialist society cannot segregate and discriminate her people in the provision of education, especially at the basic level.

7.1. The Presidential Commission on Education

In 1981, a Presidential Commission on education was appointed to review the existing system of education and propose necessary changes to be realized by the country towards the year 2000. The Commission submitted its report in March 1982 and the government has implemented most of its recommendation. The most significant ones related to this paper were the establishment of the Teachers’ Service Commission (TSC), the Tanzania Professional Teachers Association, the introduction of new curriculum packages at primary, secondary and teacher education levels, the establishment of the Faculty of Education (FoE) at the University of Dar-es-Salaam, the introduction of pre-primary teacher education programme; and the expansion of secondary education.

7.2. Education during the Second Phase Government of Tanzania

The second phase government of Tanzania spanning from 1985 to 1995, was characterized by new liberal ideas such as free choice, market-oriented schooling and cost efficiency, reduced the government control of the UPE and other social services. The education sector lacked quality teachers as well as teaching/learning materials and infrastructure to address the expansion of the UPE. A vacuum was created while fragmented donor driven projects dominated primary education support. The introduced cost sharing in the provision of social services like education and health hit most the poorest of the poor. This decrease in government support in the provision of social services including education as well as cost-sharing policies were not taken well, given that most of the incomes were below the poverty line. In 1990, the government constituted a National Task Force on education to review the existing education system and recommend a suitable education system for the 21st century.

The report of this task force, the Tanzania Education System for the 21st Century, was submitted to the government in November 1992. Recommendations of the report have been taken into consideration in the formulation of the Tanzania Education and Training Policy (TETP). In spite of the very impressive expansionary education policies and reforms in the 1970s, the goal to achieve UPE, which was once targeted for achievement in 1980, is way out of reach. Similarly, the Jomtien objective to achieve Basic Education for all in 2000 is on the part of Tanzania unrealistic. The participation and access level have declined to the point that attainment of UPE is once again an issue in itself. Other developments and trends indicate a decline in the quantitative goals set rather than being closer to them (Cooksey and Reidmiller, 1997; Mbilinyi, 2000). At the same time serious doubt is being raised about school quality and relevance of education provided (Galabawa, Senkoro and Lwaitama, (eds), 2000).

7.3. Outcomes of UPE

According to Galabawa (2001), the UPE describing, analysis and discussing explored three measures in Tanzania: (1) the measure of access to first year of primary education namely, the apparent intake rate. This is based on the total number of new entrants in the first grade regardless of age. This number is in turn expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school entrance age and the net intake rate based on the number of new entrants in the first grade who are of the official primary school entrance age expressed as percentage of the population of corresponding age. (2) The measure of participation, namely, gross enrolment ratio representing the number of children enrolled in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the official primary school age population; while the net enrolment ratio corresponds to the number of children of the official primary school age enrolled in primary school expressed as a percentage of corresponding population. (3) The measure of internal efficiency of education system, which reflect the dynamics of different operational decision making events over the school cycle like dropouts, promotions and repetitions.

7.3.1. Access to Primary Education

The absolute numbers of new entrants to grade one of primary school cycles have grown steadily since 1970s. The number of new entrants increased from around 400,000 in 1975 to 617,000 in 1990 and to 851,743 in 2000, a rise of 212.9 percent in relative terms. The apparent (gross) intake rate was high at around 80% in the 1970s dropping to 70% in 1975 and rise up to 77% in 2000. This level reflects the shortcomings in primary education provision. Tanzania is marked by wide variations in both apparent and net intake rates-between urban and rural districts with former performing higher. Low intake rates in rural areas reflect the fact that many children do not enter schools at the official age of seven years.

7.3.2. Participation in Primary Education

The regression in the gross and net primary school enrolment ratios; the exceptionally low intake at secondary and vocational levels; and, the general low internal efficiency of the education sector have combined to create a UPE crisis in Tanzania’s education system (Education Status Report, 2001). There were 3,161,079 primary pupils in Tanzania in 1985 and, in the subsequent decade primary enrolment rose dramatically by 30% to 4,112,167 in 1999. These absolute increases were not translated into gross/net enrolment rates, which actually experienced a decline threatening the sustainability of quantitative gains. The gross enrolment rate, which was 35.1% in late 1960’s and early 1970s’, grew appreciably to 98.0% in 1980 when the net enrolment rate was 68%. (ibid)

7.3.3. Internal Efficiency in Primary Education

The input/output ratio shows that it takes an average of 9.4 years (instead of planned 7 years) for a pupil to complete primary education. The extra years are due to starting late, drop-outs, repetition and high failure rate which is pronounced at standard four where a competency/mastery examination is administered (ESDP, 1999, p.84). The drive towards UPE has been hampered by high wastage rates.

7.4. Education during the Third Phase Government of Tanzania

The third phase government spanning the period from 1995 to date, intends to address both income and non-income poverty so as to generate capacity for provision and consumption of better social services. In order to address these income and non-income poverty the government formed the Tanzania Vision 2025. Vision 2025 targets at high quality livelihood for all Tanzanians through the realization of UPE, the eradication of illiteracy and the attainment of a level of tertiary education and training commensurate with a critical mass of high quality human resources required to effectively respond to the developmental challenges at all level. In order to revitalize the whole education system the government established the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) in this period. Within the ESDP, there two education development plans already in implementation, namely: (a) The Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP); and (b) The Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP).

8. Prospects and Challenges of Primary of Education Sector

Since independence, The government has recognised the central role of education in achieving the overall development goal of improving the quality of life of Tanzanians through economic growth and poverty reduction. Several policies and structural reforms have been initiated by the Government to improve the quality of education at all levels. These include: Education for Self-Reliance, 1967; Musoma Resolution, 1974; Universal Primary Education (UPE), 1977; Education and Training Policy (ETP), 1995; National Science and Technology Policy, 1995; Technical Education and Training Policy, 1996; Education Sector Development Programme, 1996 and National Higher Education Policy, 1999. The ESDP of 1996 represented for the first time a Sector-Wide Approach to education development to redress the problem of fragmented interventions. It called for pooling together of resources (human, financial and materials) through the involvement of all key stakeholders in education planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (URT, 1998 quoted in MoEC 2005b). The Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) provided the institutional framework.

Challenges include the considerable shortage of classrooms, a shortage of well qualified and expert teachers competent to lead their learners through the new competency based curriculum and learning styles, and the absence of an assessment and examination regime able to reinforce the new approaches and reward students for their ability to demonstrate what they know understand and can do. At secondary level there is a need to expand facilities necessary as a result of increased transition rates. A major challenge is the funding gap, but the government is calling on its development partners to honour the commitments made at Dakar, Abuja, etc, to respond positively to its draft Ten Year Plan. A number of systemic changes are at a critical stage, including decentralisation, public service reform, strengthening of financial management and mainstreaming of ongoing project and programmes. The various measures and interventions introduced over the last few years have been uncoordinated and unsynchronised. Commitment to a sector wide approach needs to be accompanied by careful attention to secure coherence and synergy across sub-sectoral elements. (Woods, 2007).

9. Education and School Leadership in Tanzania and the Impacts

Education and leadership in primary education sector in Tanzania has passed through various periods as explained in the stages above. The school leadership major reformation was maintained and more decentralized in the implementation of the PEDP from the year 2000 to date. This paper is also more concerned with the implementation of globalization driven policies that influence the subjectivity of education changes. It is changing to receive what Tjeldvoll et al. (2004:1; quoted in Makule, 2008) considers as “the new managerial responsibilities”. These responsibilities are focused to increase accountability, equity and quality in education which are global agenda, because it is through these, the global demands in education will be achieved. In that case school leadership in Tanzania has changed. The change observed is due to the implementation of decentralization of both power and fund to the low levels such as schools. School leadership now has more autonomy over the resources allocated to school than it was before decentralization. It also involves community in all the issues concerning the school improvement.

10. Prospects and Challenges of School Leadership

10.1. Prospects

The decentralization of both power and funds from the central level to the low level of education such as school and community brought about various opportunities. Openness, community participation and improved efficiency mentioned as among the opportunities obtained with the current changes on school leadership. There is improved accountability, capacity building and educational access to the current changes on school leadership. This is viewed in strong communication network established in most of the schools in the country. Makule (2008) in her study found out that the network was effective where every head teacher has to send to the district various school reports such as monthly report, three month report, half a year report, nine month report and one year report. In each report there is a special form in which a head teacher has to feel information about school. The form therefore, give account of activities that takes place at school such as information about the uses of the funds and the information about attendance both teacher and students, school buildings, school assets, meetings, academic report, and school achievement and problems encountered. The effect of globalization forces on school leadership in Tanzania has in turn forced the government to provide training and workshop for school leadership (MoEC, 2005b). The availability of school leadership training, whether through workshop or training course, considered to be among the opportunities available for school leadership in Tanzania

10.2. Challenges

Like all countries, Tanzania is bracing itself for a new century in every respect. The dawn of the new millennium brings in new changes and challenges of all sectors. The Education and Training sector has not been spared for these challenges. This is, particularly important in recognition of adverse/implications of globalisation for developing states including Tanzania. For example, in the case of Tanzania, globalisation entails the risks of increased dependence and marginalisation and thus human resource development needs to play a central role to redress the situation. Specifically, the challenges include the globalisation challenges, access and equity, inclusive or special needs education, institutional capacity building and the HIV/aids challenge.

11. Conclusion

There are five types of local knowledge and wisdom to be pursued in globalized education, including the economic and technical knowledge, human and social knowledge, political knowledge, cultural knowledge, and educational knowledge for the developments of individuals, school institutions, communities, and the society. Although globalisation is linked to a number of technological and other changes which have helped to link the world more closely, there are also ideological elements which have strongly influenced its development. A “free market” dogma has emerged which exaggerates both the wisdom and role of markets, and of the actors in those markets, in the organisation of human society. Fashioning a strategy for responsible globalisation requires an analysis which separates that which is dogma from that which is inevitable. Otherwise, globalisation is an all too convenient excuse and explanation for anti-social policies and actions including education which undermine progress and break down community. Globalisation as we know it has profound social and political implications. It can bring the threat of exclusion for a large portion of the world’s population, severe problems of unemployment, and growing wage and income disparities. It makes it more and more difficult to deal with economic policy or corporate behaviour on a purely national basis. It also has brought a certain loss of control by democratic institutions of development and economic policy.

How Healthy is Popcorn? – Nutrition Facts For the Healthy Snack

Healthy eaters in the U.S. continually turn to popcorn as a healthy replacement for the salty snacks that usually break a diet. Instead of snacks like potato chips, nuts or pretzels that may be high in calories, salt or fat content, popcorn provides the bite-sized mouth-popping ease of other snacks while also providing vitamins, minerals and fiber but not much fat! Here are some facts about the snack and the best way to eat it to get the most nutritive value.

Nutrition Facts for Popcorn

* Popcorn contains more than 40 different nutrients.

* It has more iron than eggs, peanuts or spinach.

* You can find B complex vitamins, vitamin E, Riboflavin and Thiamine in popcorn kernels.

* Popcorn has the most protein of any cereal grain.

* In the hull of the kernel, you’ll find iron, phosphorous and protein.

* Popcorn has more fiber than potato chips or pretzels.

Additionally, popcorn is the recommended snack of many health and research organizations in the US. The American Dental Association recommends it as a good sugar free and fat free snack for kids. The National Cancer Institute, noting that fiber in your diet helps protect you from cancer, recommends popcorn as a great way to add fiber to your diet. The American Diabetes Association allows popcorn as a starchy snack on weight-control diets. The Feingold Diet for hyperactive children allows popcorn as a snack as well since it can be prepared with no additives or sugars.

The Best Way to Eat Popcorn

The best preparation for popcorn if you want it to be a healthy, low-cal snack is to air-pop it. Adding butter, salt or other toppings can lessen the nutritional impact of eating popcorn as a snack. 1 cup of air-popped popcorn has about 30 calories, 1 gram of dietary fiber and 1 gram of protein per serving. It has no no saturated fat, trans fats or cholesterol. You’ll also find manganese, folate, niacin, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, copper and selenium in popcorn.

Whether you are dieting, trying to get your kids to eat healthy snacks or simply attempting to eat more healthily yourself, replacing fatty junk foods with freshly popped popcorn is an easy exchange. Eating popcorn to quell your snack cravings is a health-conscious choice that will help you control your weight and provide nutrition instead of just satisfying your snacking urges!

Why Diabetics Should Eat Lots of Shrimp

Shrimp is one of the best food choices a diabetic can make. Here are some of the main reasons:

Shrimp Has LOTS of Omega-3 (Omega-3 Fatty Acids) and This Is Extremely Important To the Diabetic

Diabetics have damaged cell membranes. They are “insulin resistant” which means they don’t respond normally to insulin when it signals the cell to uptake glucose. Glucose can’t get across these damaged membranes at the normal rate, and therefore, this sugar builds up in the bloodstream reaping havoc with your body.

Repairing these membranes involves eliminating certain things from your diet, especially trans fat which gets subsituted into your cell membranes where the healthy omega-3’s should go. This damages your cell membranes and makes them too “stiff.” Even if you eliminate trans fat, if you don’t get enough omega-3, you won’t be able to repair and maintain those damaged cell membranes. Shrimp is one of the very best sources for omega-3.

Shrimp Has the Best Kind of Omega-3

There are several different types of omega-3.

First, there is a difference between plant derived omega-3 (ALA) and animal derived omega-3 (DHA and EPA). Humans can not use the plant version (ALA) without first converting it and we can only convert about 10% of what we eat. The rest is wasted. Also, diabetics and older people convert at even a lower rate. Therefore, it is best to eat the animal form of omega-3 which we can more easily use.

Second, the omega-3 in shrimp and other crustaceans (a type of arthropod) is attached to a phospholipid molecule. This is exactly what is found in the membranes of humans and is easier for the body to absorb than when it’s attached to triglyceride molecule like you find in fish.

Shrimp Is Very High In Protein, Very Low In Fat, and Contains Virtually No Carb

Each bite of succulent shrimp is packed with protein and hardly any fat. Plus, it has virually no carb. Since diabetics need to lower their carb intake and increase their protein intake, this makes the composition of shrimp meat perfect for the diabetic.

You Don’t Need To Worry About the Cholesterol Thing

Shrimp got a very undeserved bad rap regarding cholesterol. Yes, it is true that shrimp meat contains cholesterol BUT it is extremely low in saturated fat which is actually what raises cholesterol in humans. In fact, eating shrimp actually raises the good cholesterol.

Shrimp Tastes Great – What a Treat!

Most diabetics have to give up or at least drastically reduce some of their favorite foods. However, here’s a food that is simply wonderful in taste and is almost always thought of as quite a treat that is simply perfect for the diabetic to eat. Thank you Mother Nature!